ISSN: 1899-0967
Polish Journal of Radiology
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vol. 84
Cardiovascular radiology
Original paper

Are type I dural arteriovenous fistulas safe? Single-centre experience of endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas

Krzysztof Brzozowski
Jerzy Narloch
Piotr Piasecki
Piotr Zięcina
Andrzej Koziarski

© Pol J Radiol 2019; 84: e179-e184
Online publish date: 2019/04/05
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There are mixed reports on the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas. We assessed new proposed risk factors (i.a. number of outflows and outflow diameter) of intracerebral haemorrhage due to intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula and presented our personal experience in endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas.

Material and methods
The patient database from January 2006 and December 2016 was reviewed, and 25 patients with 28 dural arteriovenous fistulas were identified.

50% of patients presented with intracerebral haemorrhage. Multiple dural fistulas occurred in 12% of patients. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a strong association between Cognard classification type and time needed to treat (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), as well as the volume of contrast used (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). Infratentorial (r = 0.53, p < 0.05) and right-sided (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) localisation were more challenging to treat. Bleeding was associated with poorer clinical outcome (r = 0.48, p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the non-haemorrhagic group and the haemorrhagic group regarding the number of outflows (p = 0.459) and largest outflow diameter (p = 0.298). Clinical evaluation at follow-up was as follows: 56% of patients were asymptomatic, 24% had non-significant disability, maintaining independency, 16% had moderate disability, and 8% died – one in the course of intracerebral haemorrhage and one due to other sustained injuries. There were no reported embolisation- related complications.

To conclude, regardless of presentation, both symptomatic and asymptomatic dural arteriovenous fistulas deserve clinical attention, structured evaluation, and follow-up. Type I fistulas were associated with haemorrhage in 1/3 of all cases. Overall our results indicate that the risk of haemorrhage and dire consequences is multifactorial.


AVF, interventional neuroradiology, embolisation, haemorrhage, Onyx

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