ISSN: 1899-0967
Polish Journal of Radiology
Established by prof. Zygmunt Grudziński in 1926 Sun
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vol. 83
Original paper

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations – usability of Spetzler-Martin and Spetzler-Ponce scales in qualification to endovascular embolisation and neurosurgical procedure

Mariusz Hofman
Tomasz Jamróz
Izabela Kołodziej
Jakub Jaskólski
Aleksandra Ignatowicz
Izabela Jakutowicz
Nikodem Przybyłko
Damian Kocur
Jan Baron

© Pol J Radiol 2018; 83: e243-e247
Online publish date: 2018/05/29
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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are connected with cerebral haemorrhage, seizures, increased intracranial pressure, headaches, mass effect, and ischaemia symptoms. Selection of the best treatment method or even deciding if intervention is required can be difficult.

Material and methods
The study included 50 patients who were diagnosed with cerebral AVMs and treated in our Centre between 2008 and 2014. A total of 111 procedures were performed, including 94 endovascular embolisations and 17 neurosurgical procedures. Medical records and imaging data were reviewed for all patients. All AVMs were measured and assessed, allowing classification in Spetzler-Martin and Spetzler-Ponce scales.

Complete or partial treatment was observed in 88.24% of neurosurgical procedures and in 84.00% of embolisations. Early complication rate was 21.28% for embolisation and 17.65% for neurosurgical procedures, while Glasgow Outcome Scale was 4.89 (σ = 0.38) and 5.0 (σ = 0.00), respectively. According to the Spetzler-Martin scale, cerebral haemorrhages occurred more frequently in grade 1, but no statistical significance was observed. In Spetzler-Ponce class B lower grades in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were noticed (p = 0.02). Lower GCS scores were also correlated with deep location of AVM and with eloquence of adjacent brain. Patients with Spetzler-Martin grade 1 were more frequently qualified for neurosurgical procedures than other patients.

Treating AVMs requires coordination of a multidisciplinary team. Both endovascular embolisation and neurosurgical procedure should be considered as a part of multimodal, frequently multistage treatment. Spetzler-Martin and Spetzler-Ponce scales have an influence on haemorrhage frequency and patients’ clinical condition and should be taken into consideration in selecting the treatment method.


intracranial arteriovenous malformations, embolisation, therapeutic, neurosurgical procedures

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