ISSN: 1899-0967
Polish Journal of Radiology
Established by prof. Zygmunt Grudziński in 1926 Sun
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
vol. 87
Urogenital radiology
Letter to the Editor

In response to the article “The relationship between hysterosalpingography findings and female infertility in a Nigerian population”. Pol J Radiol 2020; 85: e188-e195

Ankita Aggarwal
Neha Bagri

Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
© Pol J Radiol 2022; 87: e194
Online publish date: 2022/03/28
Article file
- In response_1.pdf  [0.05 MB]
Get citation
JabRef, Mendeley
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
PlumX metrics:

Dear Editor,

Being budding gynaecoradiologist, we read the article “The relationship between hysterosalpingography findings and female infertility in a Nigerian population” authored by Adedigba et al. with great interest [1]. In the current era of highly sophisticated imaging modalities like magnetic resonance imaging, bringing out the importance of a simple conventional imaging modality like hysterosalpingography (HSG), which is easy, cheap, and fairly informative, is worth appreciating. We commend the authors for their work.

However, we have made a few observations that we would like to bring to the notice of the readers of this article. The authors observed tubal block to be the predominant cause of infertility in females, with cornual block being the commonest site. As the authors themselves state, due to unsafe abortions there is higher risk of pelvic infections in their population. Pelvic inflammatory disease usually affects the ampullary region, and hence this observation is contradictory. A possible explanation for this observation is the presence of cornual spasm or excessive cornual plugging. A study by Sulak et al. also observed that two-thirds of the resected tubes for cornual block did not reveal any tubal pathology and were probably due to cornual spasm or mucous plugging [2]. Another observation that the authors made was that tubal pathology was more common than other pathologies in infertile patients. This could partly be explained by the fact that HSG is inherently less sensitive in detecting ovarian, uterine, or cervical pathologies [3]. Hence one cannot draw conclusions based on the findings of HSG, and it should be confirmed with a cheap and simple investigation like transvaginal ultrasound. PID usually concomitantly affects the cervix or uterus along with the tubes because these are ascending infections; hence, treating only the tubal pathology without treating the ovarian/uterine pathology would not be beneficial.

Although it was a retrospective study, it would have been interesting if the authors had commented on the outcome of the patients diagnosed with various pathologies on HSG, whether they underwent further investigation or laparoscopy or surgery, and whether these findings on HSG were also seen in other procedures. Without a gold standard, the results of a study could be fallacious.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.



Adedigba JA, Idowu BM, Hermans SP, et al. The relationship between hysterosalpingography findings and female infertility in a Nigerian population. Pol J Radiol 2020; 85: e188-e195.


Sulak PJ, Letterie GS, Coddington CC, et al. Histology of proximal tubal occlusion. Fertil Steril 1987; 48: 437-440.


Ahmed SA, Abo-taleb H. The validity of HSG in infertility work up. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2019; 50: 63.

Copyright: © Polish Medical Society of Radiology This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). License allowing third parties to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
Quick links
© 2022 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.