ISSN: 1899-0967
Polish Journal of Radiology
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vol. 84
Original paper

Superior ophthalmic vein and ophthalmic artery in immediate evaluation after endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas

Krzysztof Brzozowski, Jerzy Narloch, Piotr Zięcina, Andrzej Podgórski, Piotr Piasecki

© Pol J Radiol 2019; 84: e32-e40
Online publish date: 2019/01/14
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To validate superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) and ophthalmic artery (OA) usefulness in immediate evaluation of new endovascular approaches to treat carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs).

Material and methods
A retrospective review of 597 intracerebral malformation embolisations yielded 40 embolisations of CCF in the treatment of 18 patients. Two interventional radiologists performed detailed radiological angiographic assessments.

Mean age at initial admission was 58.9 years (SD 18.5 years, range 24-85 years). Patients presented with: chemosis (50%), ocular bruit (50%), exophthalmos (61%), diminished visual acuity (77.8%), headache (16.7%), and intracerebral haemorrhage (5.55%), and 5.55% were asymptomatic. Unilateral fistulas (10-55.5%) showed more diversified venous drainage pattern than bilateral ones (8-44.4%). There were statistically significant differences in post-traumatic and spontaneous CCF regarding age (p = 0.036), type of fistula (p = 0.0008), and presence of pseudoaneurysm (p = 0.036). 77.8% of patients had increased ipsilateral SOV diameter. SOV enlargement was not associated with type of fistula, history of trauma, or degree of exophthalmos. Ipsilateral ophthalmic artery was visible in all patients on both pre- and postprocedural angiography on lateral projection. Pre- and post-procedural SOV diameter was significantly different. Internal carotid artery patency was 100%, while the overall final angiographic or clinical success was 85.7%. We had three cases of peri-procedural complications.

We reported changeable dynamics of SOV and OA after endovascular treatment of CCFs and proved the feasibility of coils and Onyx-18 in the treatment thereof.


CCF, interventional neuroradiology, embolisation, coils, Onyx

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