ISSN: 1899-0967
Polish Journal of Radiology
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vol. 89
Interventional radiology
Original paper

Preoperative embolisation of renal cell carcinoma metastases to the spine – evaluation of procedural and clinical outcome

Paweł Szmygin
Maciej Szmygin
Krzysztof Pyra
Władysław Rogała
Paweł Andrzejewicz
Tomasz Jargiełło

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Department of Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Department of Traumatic and Orthopaedic Surgery, Center of Oncology of the Lublin Region St. Jana z Dukli, Lublin, Poland
© Pol J Radiol 2024; 89: e128-e133
Online publish date: 2024/03/07
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the fourth most common metastatic tumour of the spine. RCC metastases are highly vascular and might cause life-threatening intraoperative bleeding. That is why preoperative embolisation is performed to reduce intraoperative blood loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the procedural and clinical outcomes of preoperative embolisation of RCC metastases to the vertebral column.

Material and methods
In this single-centre retrospective study, data of 59 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular treatment prior to surgical resection were collected and evaluated. In all cases superselective catheterisation and occlusion of feeding vessels was attempted and performed if deemed safe and possible. Completeness of embolisation, procedural details, and the complication rate were evaluated. Surgical procedures were carried out within 48 hours after embolisation. The surgical approach was dependent on the anatomical site and osseous destruction. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated.

Fifty-nine patients with a mean age of 63 years were included. Complete embolisation was successful in 76% (45/59) and partial in 15% (9/59). Microspheres were the most commonly used embolic material. In 5 cases (8%) safe occlusion was not possible due to the radiculomedullary artery originating from the same pedicle as the tumour. Minor complications (vomiting, increased pain) occurred in 8 patients. Paraplegia (one transient and one permanent) was noted in 2 cases. Estimated intraoperative blood loss was 830 ± 410 ml.

The results of our study show that preoperative embolisation is a feasible and effective method with a relatively high rate of occlusion and low complication rate.


renal cell carcinoma, spinal metastases, embolisation, procedural outcome

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