Splenic Vein Thrombosis as a Rare Complication of Disseminated Tuberculosis – Imaging Diagnosis and Case Report
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Publication date: 2018-02-02
Pol J Radiol, 2017; 82: 106-109
Background: Venous thromboembolism is a known but rare complication associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism is 1.5–3.4% of infected patients, and it occurs due to a hypercoagulable state induced by the associated inflammation.
Case Report: A young woman with pulmonary tuberculosis was found to have disseminated tuberculosis and a clinically unsuspected partial thrombus in the splenic vein on imaging. Ultrasound demonstrated hepato-splenomegaly with multiple granulomas as well as ascites and a left-sided pleural effusion.
An increased calibre of the splenic vein with a hyperechogenicity within it raised the suspicion of a thrombus, which was confirmed on a contrast-enhanced CT examination. CECT of the abdomen also showed a small peripheral splenic infarct, while CECT of the chest revealed bilateral military lesions in the lungs along with necrotic mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The final imaging diagnosis was disseminated tuberculosis complicated by splenic vein thrombosis. A timely institution of anti-coagulant and anti-tubercular treatment led to a complete resolution of the splenic vein thrombosis.
Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced CT serves as a useful imaging tool for the detection of venous thrombosis and for the estimation of a complete burden of the disease. This condition should be kept in mind by both clinicians and radiologists and looked for in order to prevent life-threatening complications.
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