Influencing factors of pneumothorax and parenchymal haemorrhage after CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy: single-institution experience
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Submission date: 2018-04-15
Final revision date: 2018-05-09
Acceptance date: 2018-05-10
Publication date: 2018-07-26
Pol J Radiol, 2018; 83: 379-388
To evaluate the incidences and influencing factors of pneumothorax and parenchymal haemorrhage after computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB).

Material and methods:
A retrospective analysis of 216 patients who underwent CT-guided TTNB was performed. The frequencies and risk factors of pneumothorax and parenchymal haemorrhage were determined. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

The incidences of pneumothorax and parenchymal haemorrhage were 23.1% and 45.4%, respectively. Twenty-two per cent of patients with pneumothorax needed percutaneous drainage, but all patients with parenchymal haemorrhage had clinical improvement after conservative treatment. No procedure-related mortality was detected. Univariate analysis showed that underlying pulmonary infection, lesion size of less than 1 cm, and lesion depth of more than 2 cm were significant influencing factors of pneumothorax. A significant relationship between the underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the need for drainage catheter insertion was found. Pulmonary haemorrhage was more likely to occur in patients with underlying malignancy, solid pulmonary nodule, lesion size of 3 cm or less, and lesion depth of more than 3 cm. Consolidation was the protective factor for pulmonary haemorrhage. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) for the diagnosis of malignancy were 95.7%, 100%, 100%, 93.3%, and 97.3%, respectively. The rate of diagnostic failure was 10.2%.

Pulmonary hemorrhage is the most common complication after CT-guided TTNB. Influencing factors for pneumothorax are underlying pulmonary infection, lesion size < 1 cm, and lesion depth > 2 cm. Underlying malignancy, solid pulmonary nodule, lesion size ≤ 3 cm, and lesion depth > 3 cm are associated with pulmonary haemorrhage.

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